Clove oil (from clove leaves, stalks and flowers) can be transformed into 4-Allyl-2-methoxy-6-sulfonicphenol and 4-Allyl-2-methoxy-6-aminophenol in moderate yields. This compound has a wide range of applications in the food industry and has been used as a precursor in the synthesis of certain compounds by the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Compound 4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol (eugenol) which is the active component of clove which has been used traditionally in Asia as a popular medicine, especially as an antiseptic, analgesic and antibacterial agent.
Clove oil or clove essential oil known as clove eugenol has more advantages than other eugenol essential oils. The advantage of clove eugenol is that it has an inhibiting ability compared to other eugenol-containing essential oils, such as cumin. These advantages make clove eugenol usable for health and pharmaceutical needs.
Clove oil, eugenol can be used as an anti-cancer drug. Clove essential oil (eugenol) is a potential candidate for further development in assisting modern chemotherapy treatments for various types of cancer. The process is through a molecular mechanism of eugenol-induced apoptosis in melanoma, skin tumors, osteosarcoma, leukemia, stomach and mast cells. The antiproliferative activity and molecular mechanisms of eugenol inducing apoptosis in cancer cells and animal models have been demonstrated. Eugenol exposure can also contribute to amino acid deficiencies, making it promising as an anticancer therapeutic drug. So clove eugenol is an ingredient that can prevent and treat cancer cells (wild cells that can damage body tissues).
Eugenol is a natural phenolic compound and has antibacterial activity. Eugenol is an anti-bacterial which is useful for human health care. Clove oil as an anti-microbial can be used as the main ingredient for dental care. Clove oil is used in the form of a paste or mixture as a dental cement, filler, restorative agent and mucoadhesive tablets related to gingival applications.
Clove oil was proven as the most potential source because it showed the highest antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria. This was shown by the membrane and cell wall of the bacteria which were significantly damaged when treated with clove oil. Clove oil which contains antimicrobial properties is part of a drug delivery system for the treatment of bad breath, plaque and others.
Eugenol is an aromatic component of clove oil which has therapeutic potential as an anti-fungal drug. Dermatophytosis is an important public health problem in the tropics. Clove essential oil is effective in suppressing the growth of Microposum canis in vitro. With a concentration of 500 ppm, it has been able to inhibit the growth of M. canis by up to 100%. Clove sarasah leaf essential oil had the highest antifungal effect (89.17%) compared to citronella oil (80.98%) and cinnamon (77.07%). The use of clove eugenol is very effective in curing and controlling ringworm in pets.
Eugenol is an antioxidant compound that has molecules that can slow down or prevent the oxidation of other molecules. Eugenol is also known to have chain-breaking antioxidant properties in inhibiting lipid peroxidn. Retinoic acid (RA), a synthetic derivative of vitamin A, has been frequently used for the treatment of facial acne. Eugenol can reduce the teratogenic effects of RA, and is also suggested as a protective agent for use with RA in skin therapy during pregnancy.
Eugenol exerts anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, antifibrogenic and remodeling effects on human skin fibroblasts. The use of clove essential oil (eugenol) for maintenance of human skin is commercially available. It can be shown that eugenol at a concentration of 0.011% exerts a strong antiproliferative effect on human skin fibroblasts. It significantly inhibits the increased production of several pro-inflammatory biomarkers, inhibits tissue remodeling protein molecules, and inhibits tissue metalloproteinases. Furthermore, this eugenol significantly modulates global gene expression and alters markers that are important for inflammation, tissue remodeling, and cancer signaling processes.
Eugenol functions as an anti-mosquito agent for dengue fever. The results determined by GC-MS showed that S. aromaticum oil having eugenol (80.5%) as its main constituent could cause Aedes aegypt larvae mortality of more than 85% larval mortality within 24 hours. S. aromaticum oil is more toxic to mosquito larvae. So Eugenol has larvicidal potential in vector management and control, also functions as an anti-malarial mosquito drug.
Clove eugenol 67% as the main component of biopesticides effectively controls Anopheles stephensi mosquito larvae. Given the cost of essential oils which have a lower risk and resistance to larvae, the use of it preferred as an Anopheles stephensi mosquito larvicide compared to other eugenols. The results of this study indicate that eugenol is an effective ingredient as a biopesticide to control insect larvae.
The development of cloves as a raw material for herbal medicines or natural medicines will improve the quality of human health. It is recognized that herbal medicines have advantages compared to conventional medicines, which include not having negative side effects, both on the user and the surrounding environment.
The use of herbal medicines will improve the quality of health. By improving the quality of health it will be able to improve the quality of human resources and will ultimately lead to increased productivity of human resources. Increasing the productivity of human resources will have an impact on increasing people’s income and welfare. The use of clove oil for treatment will be able to improve the quality of pets which can create pets that are organic. The creation of organic products will lead to the improvement of human health.