Cloves are the unopened flower buds of the evergreen tree Eugenia caryophyllus in the family Myrtaceae. The tree is native to the Moluccas, which are part of Indonesia. Nowadays, however, also grown in many other tropical countries. Cloves must be dried before they are stored and sold for market. 

Indonesia is known as a land of fertility. No matter what plant is it can be planted in Indonesia because Indonesia has a tropical season. One of the famous products of Indonesia is cloves. Botanically, the spice belongs to the family of Myrtaceae of the genus; Sygyzium, and scientifically named as Sygizium aromaticum.

It considered as one of the main products that contributes Indonesia’s economy as it has numer of exports compared to other exporting countries. One of the high-quality cloves is cloves zanzibar. Every year, more than 6000 tons of cloves are produced. Here are what needs to know about it.

Cloves Uses

As a time goes by, business of cloves is developing. Cloves are used in cooking (desserts, bakery products, meat, fish, red cabbage, mulled wine) and in the food, including medicine, pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries. They are also used to produce clove oil, the main constituent of which is eugenol. Eugenol is used, among other things, to perfume soaps, as a dental anaesthetic and as an additive in dental filling material. The main focus of this study is on the clove bud. The stems and clove fruit are not widely consumed in Europe.

Quality of Cloves

Product qulity is vital issue for the national spices associations for most key all players. It contains the chemical and physical parameters that determine the minimum quality requirements for cloves, As specifies the legal European requirements as below: 

Ash (max.) 7% 

Acid Insol. Ash 0.5% 

Moisture (max) 12% 

Volitile Oil (min) 12 ml/100 gr 

 Indonesian cloves has high quality where most of the cloves contain 16-20 % Volitile Oil, high-quality cloves should be oil-rich. 

Based on data, Indonesia accounts for the largest share of global production (77% in 2016). It is not only the biggest producer but also the biggest consumer of cloves, much of the volume being used in the manufacture of kretek Indonesian clove cigarettes. The second largest producer, Madagascar

The spice is used in a type of cigarette called kretek in Indonesia. Clove cigarettes have been smoked throughout Europe, Asia and the United States. Starting in 2009, clove cigarettes must be classified as cigars in the US. Though long-used in traditional medicine, there is little evidence that clove oil containing eugenol is effective for toothache pain or other types of pain, although one review reported efficacy of eugenol combined with zinc oxide as an analgesic for alveolar osteitis. 

Studies to determine its effectiveness for fever reduction, as a mosquito repellent, and to prevent premature ejaculation have been inconclusive. It remains unproven whether using cloves or clove oil reduces blood sugar levels. Use of clove for any medicinal purpose has not been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, and its use may cause adverse effects if taken orally by people with liver disease, blood clotting and immune system disorders, or food allergies.

Other important essential oil constituents of clove oil include acetyl eugenol, beta-caryophyllene and vanillin, crategolic acid, tannins such as bicornin, gallotannic acid, methyl salicylate (painkiller), the flavonoids eugenin, kaempferol, rhamnetin, and eugenitin, triterpenoids such as oleanolic acid, stigmasterol, and campesterol and several sesquiterpenes. Eugenol is toxic in relatively small quantities; for example, a dose of 5–10 ml has been reported as being a near fatal dose for a two-year-old child.


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