Damar is a non-timber forest product derived from tree species belonging to the Dipterocarp and Burseraceae families. In the Malay language damar means resin or lamps derived from resin. Damar grows naturally in lowland rainforests. Altitude suitable for its habitat is about 1200 meters above sea level. The resin tree can grow up to 65 meters high and has a round cylindrical trunk with a diameter of more than 1.5 meters.
“Trees of the Dipterocarpaceae family that produce resin include Anisoptera costata Kort, which has a color range from white to dark blue-gray, Anisoptera grossivenia Sloot, which has a color range from white to green, Anisoptera marginata, Dipterocarpus caudiferus Merr, which has a color range from yellow to white, Dipterocarpus crinitus Dyer, which has a range of colors from white to light yellow, Dipterocarpus elongatus Kort, which is white, Dipterocarpus kunstleri King, which is white or light yellow, Dipterocarpus verrucosus Foxw. ex Sloot, which is white or light red.
Dryobalanops aromatica Gaerth, which is clear white, Dryobalanops lanceolata Burck, which is white, Dryobalanops oblongifolia Dyer, which is white, Hopea celebica Burck, which is white to pale yellow, Hopea gregaria Sloot, which is clear white to yellow, and Shorea bracteolata Dyer, which is clear or clear yellow.”
Many types of resin are hunted by the community, namely cat eye resin, stone resin, Meranti black resin, and resac resin. The resins that are commonly known in Indonesia are cat’s eye resin and stone resin.
In Indonesia the grouping of resin based on color is Damar rasak, Damar putih, Damar red, Damar Hitam, and Damar cat’s eye. Cat’s eye resin is resin produced from the best and highest quality S. javanica species. This resin is shiny and looks like glass. Whereas in India resin is divided based on the type of tree it produces, namely Sal dammar which comes from the Shorea robusta tree (Dipterocarpaceae), White resin comes from the Vateria indica tree (Dipterocarpaceae), and Black resin comes from the Canarium strictum tree (Burseraceae).
Based on how to take the resin is divided into two types, namely based on the method of taking the resin. White resin is obtained by making semi-circular wounds on a log to the surface of the sapwood and black damar is done by incising the bark of a tree vertically. Meanwhile, based on its name, damar is divided into several types, namely Black damar which comes from the Canarium strictum tree (Burseraceae), White damar which comes from the Vateria indica tree (Dipterocarpaceae), Penak resin which comes from the Balanocarpus heimii tree (Dipterocarpaceae) and Temak resin which comes from the Shorea hypochra tree. (Dipterocarpaceae).
Damar contains chemical compounds consisting of a complex mixture of resinic acids, resinic alcohols, resinotannol, esters and resenees. It is free of nitrogen and contains little oxygen because it contains high levels of carbon, so when it is burned it produces angus. This resin is considered a resin consisting of terpenoid substances, which by way of addition with water become resin and phytosterin. The nature of resin is insoluble in water, and partially soluble in alcohol, soluble in ether, acetone, petroleum ether, chloroform, and others. When the resins are separated and purified, they are usually formed in a brittle and amorphous solid, which softens when heated and burns out.
Damar Batu is the sap of trees from dipterocarpaceae species which have become fossils obtained from the soil and have become fossilized due to a natural hardening process. This sap has a brown and yellowish, golden and white color, and has a hard texture.
The Damar tree is quite large, with an average height of 65 meters and an average diameter of 1.5 meters with a cylindrical and straight trunk and has a gray or reddish brown bark color. Damar leaves are oval in shape with a length of 6-8 cm and a width of 2-3 cm, where the leaf veins are parallel and numerous, the male and female flowers are in different bunches on the same tree.
What is damar batu used for? Here are some of the benefits of stone resin that we need to know
Damar batu has several grades namely
1. Bombay Stone Resin.
With a large size (20 cm – 50 cm) which is used for the manufacture of paint, incense, batik dyes, asphalt formula, wax, ink, linoleum, and cosmetics.
2. Calcutta Stone Amber
Smaller in size compared to Bombay in size (1 cm – 10 cm), this resin is used as a raw material for making paints, varnishes, lacquers and thinners
3. Damar Batu Dust
This resin is the residue from Bombay and Calcutta which is used in the manufacture of putties, aromatics and cosmetics.