Cardamom is a kind of spice that is produced from the seeds of several plants of the genera Elettaria and Amomum in the Zingiberaceae family (the ginger family). Both of these genera are native to Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Indonesia, Nepal and Pakistan; cardamom seeds can be identified from their small pod seeds, cross section of triangular slices, and coil spindle shape, with a thin outer skin, and small black seeds.
Chemical ingredients in cardamom include essential oils, cineol, terpineol, borneol, sugar protein, and a little fat. The spices are often used as spices (spices) for certain dishes and also for herbal mixture. There are two types of cardamom that are widely used in Indonesia, Types of Cardamom:
1. White Cardamom or Java cardamom (Amomum compactum)
The characteristics of cardamom Java (Amomum compactum) that only grows well at heights ranging from 0 – 700 m. asl. White cardamom produces at the age of 1.5 years with good seedlings. The shape of the fruit is like an Arabian bean, 1-1.5 cm in diameter, tightly striped and short-haired with short, crowned flower remnants, black seeds, and tanned skin. Cardamom Java (Amomum compactum) is a native spice of Indonesia. Per hectare Java cardamom (Amomum compactum), will produce around 2.8 sd. 3 tons of wet fruit per year.
2. Sabrang cardamom or Indian cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum);
Elettaria cardamomum, commonly known as green or true cardamom, is a herbaceous, perennial plant in the ginger family, native to southern India. It is the most common of the species whose seeds are used as a spice called cardamom. It is cultivated widely in tropical regions
Cardamom is commonly consumed in Asia, especially in India, but has now spread to Europe. Although the seeds are small, but great efficacy. The main use of cardamom is to strengthen the taste and aroma of food. But cardamom is also good for health because it contains essential oils, cineol, terpineol, borneol, protein, sugar, fat, silicate, betamamfer, sebinene, mirkena, mirtenal, carvona, acetin terpinil, and grit.
Health benefits of cardamomare to overcome heartburn, intestinal spasms, Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), liver complaints and gallbladder, loss of appetite, cold, cough, bronchitis, mouth and throat pain, stimulants for urinary problems, infectious diseases. This is because in cardamom there are substances that act as antimicrobials, which means they can fight certain bacteria and fungi. Besides the other benefits of cardamom is to prevent constipation and smooth digestion.
This can occur because cardamom contains a lot of fiber. In just one cardamom spoon, there are 2 grams of fiber. Even this spice can help you lose weight. Because the benefits of cardamom are quite a lot, many take their extract and then pack it in herbal supplements. So naturally if cardamom is expensive, because it has so many benefits. Even demanded by many people. Not only domestically, but the demand for this spice in the international market also continues to increase. Domestic needs are also still large because of the wide utilization in the food, beverage and pharmaceutical industries.
In Indonesia, cardamom plants are spread in 20 provinces in Indonesia, the largest in West Java and Sumatra which reaches more than 27 thousand square meters with a production of 62,923 tons.